ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫

ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫ ߡߏߦߌ߫ ߘߊ߫ ߕߎߟߊߝߌ߲߫ ߕߋ߬ߟߋ߫ ߂߅/߁߉߃߆ ߟߊ߫،ߛߓߋ߬ߕߎ߫ ߞߊ߬ߦߋ߫ ߕߌ߲߬ߞߎߘߎ߲ ߘߐ߫.

ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫
Moussa Traoré (1989) crop.jpg
ߡߐ߱
ߖߊ߲߬ߕߌ߰ߦߊߗߍ߭ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߝߊ߬ߛߏ߬ߦߊ߬ ߖߡߊ߬ߣߊ߫ߡߊ߬ߟߌ߬ߓߊ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߕߐ߮߸ ߛߌ߲ߡߌ߲ߞߊ߲ ߘߐ߫ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߕߐ߮ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߛߌߕߙߊߥߟߋ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߡߏߦߌ߫ ߕߎߡߊ߂߅ ߕߎߟߊߝߌ߲ 1936 ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߡߏߦߌ߫ ߦߌߟߊߞߊ߬ߦߋ߫ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߝߘߎߡߊߡߊߙߌߦߊߡ ߛߌ߰ߛߞߐ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߞߊ߲ߝߙߊ߲߬ߛߍ߬ߞߊ߲ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߊ߬ ߟߊߥߛߎ߫ ߞߎ߲political repression, embezzlement ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
Penaltycapital punishment ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߓߊ߯ߙߘߊߓߘߍ߬ߓߘߍ߬ߟߌ߬ߟߊ, ߣߊ߲߬ߕߌ߮ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߗߋߘߊߊߝߙߌߞߌ߬ ߞߋ߬ߟߋ߲߬ߧߊ ߛߌ߲߬ߝߏ߲߬ߧߊ߬ߟߌ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߮, ߡߊ߬ߟߌ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߮ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߓߊ߯ߙߊ ߘߊߡߌ߬ߣߊ߬ ߕߎߡߊ1960 ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
Work period (end)1991 ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߞߙߎߞߊDemocratic Union of the Malian People ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߣߊߡߎ߲ߖߘߍ߬ߞߟߏ߬ߦߊ ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߣߊ߲߬ߕߌ߰ ߖߟߊGeneral of the Army ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߝߐߢߐ߲߯ߞߐAgacher Strip War, Tuareg rebellion (1990-1995) ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߛߏ߬ߙߌ߬ߡߊ߬ߘߋ߲߬Malian Army ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߞߐ߲ߘߐ߲߫ ߛߐ߬ߘߐ߲߬ߣߍ߲Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali ߊ߬ ߡߊߦߟߍ߬ߡߊ߲߫
ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫( ߁߉߈߉

ߡߊ߬ߟߌ߫ ߞߊ߲ߓߍ߲߸ ߊ߬ ߞߊ߬ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߞߍ߫ ߡߊ߬ߟߌ߬ߓߊ ߟߊ߫ ߁߉߆߈ ߣߌ߫ ߁߉߉߁ ߕߍߟߊ߫ ߘߐ߬،ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫ ߞߐߙߍ߫ ߦߋ߫ ߞߊ߬ߦߋ߫ ߡߊ߬ߣߋ߲߬ߞߊ ߘߏ߫ ߟߋ߬ ߘߌ߫، ߝߊ߬ߙߊ߲߬ߛߌ߫ ߛߏ߬ߙߌ߬ߡߊ߬ߘߋ߲߬ ߞߘߐ ߘߏ߫ ߘߋ߲ ߠߋ߬ ߦߴߊ߬ ߘߌ߬.

ߞߏߕߌ߯ ߝߟߐ:ߦߐ߬ߙߐ߫ ߖߊ߬ߞߌ߬ߕߋ߫

ߞߊ߲߬ߛߓߍߟߊߖߍ߲ߛߍ߲߫

ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫߸ߕߐ߯ߦߟߊ߫ ߘߊ߫ ߘߊߕߌ߮ ߘߎ߯ߟߊ ߘߌ߫ ߁߉߆߁ߠߊ߫߸

ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߁߉߆߈ −߁߉߉߁ߟߊߖߍ߲ߛߍ߲߫

 
ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫

ߞߟߍ߬ߕߌ߮ ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫ ߣߴߊ߬ ߘߍ߰ߢߐ߮ ߟߎ߬ ߞߊ߬ ߞߊ߬ߝߏ߬ ߖߊߛߏ߲ ߞߍ߫ ߡߊ߬ߟߌ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ ߝߟߐ ߡߏߘߌߓߏ߫ ߞߋߕߊ߬ ߟߊ߫ ߞߴߊ߬ ߡߌ߬ߘߊ߬ ߞߴߊ߬ ߟߊߘߏ߲߬ ߥߛߎ ߘߐ߫߸ߞߵߊ߬ ߟߊ߫ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߘߊߝߘߌ߫߸ߞߴߊ߬ ߞߣߐ߬ߘߐߗߍ ߓߊ߱ ߟߊ߫ ߞߵߊ߬ ߝߊ߰ ߛߊ߲߭ ߉ ߥߛߎ ߞߐߝߍ߬. ߏ߬ ߞߍ߫ ߘߊ߫ ߞߵߊ߬ ߕߘߍ߬ ߤߊߟߴߊ߬ ߡߊ߫ ߞߕߌ߫ ߞߕߌߟߌߟߊ ߟߎ߬ ߓߟߏ߫ ߸ ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߞߍ߫ ߘߊ߫ ߡߊ߬ߟߌ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ ߝߌߟߊߣߊ߲ ߘߌ߫ ߁߉߆߈−߁߉߉߁ ߣߌ߫ ߕߍߟߊ߫ ߘߐ߬

ߊ߬ ߟߊ߫ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߘߊߝߘߌ߫ߟߊߖߍ߲ߛߍ߲߫

߁߉߉߁ߟߊ߫ ߛߊ߲߭ ߂߃ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߞߐߝߍ߬߸ߕߙߊߓߊ ߕߋ߬ߟߋ߫ ߂߂/߁߉߉߁/ߡߊ߬ߟߌ߬ߓߊ ߞߊ߬ߙߊ߲߬ߠߊ߬ߘߋ߲ ߠߎ߬ ߟߊ߫ ߔߊߞߌߛߦߊ ߘߏ߫ ߛߋ߲߭ߝߍ߬ ߊߡߊߘߎ߫ ߕߎ߬ߡߊ߬ߣߌ߲߫ ߕߎ߬ߙߋ߫ ߞߏߟߊߘߍߢߐ߲߮ ߟߎ߬ ߞߊ߬ ߞߊ߬ߝߏ߬ ߖߊ߲ߛߏ߲ ߞߍ߫ ߞߊ߬ ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߟߊ߫ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߘߊߝߘߌ߫߸ߞߴߊ߬ ߞߕߌ߫ ߞߴߊ߬ ߓߌ߬ߟߊ߫ ߛߌ߭ ߕߐ߭ ߥߛߎ ߟߊ߫߸ߊߟߌߝߊ߫ ߎߡߊߙ ߞߏ߬ߣߊ߬ߙߋ߫ ߛߌ߰ߣߍ߲߫ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߰ߦߊ ߟߊ߬ ߸ ߏ߬ ߘߌ߬ߢߍ߬ ߘߴߊ߬ ߡߊ߬߸ߞߴߊ߬ ߟߊߓߐ߫ ߥߛߎ߫ ߟߊ߫.

ߊ߬ ߘߍ߰ߢߐ߮ ߡߍ߲ ߠߎ߫ ߟߊߘߏ߲߬ ߠߊ߫ ߥߛߎ ߘߐ߫.ߟߊߖߍ߲ߛߍ߲߫

ߞߟߍ߬ߕߌ߯ ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫ ߘߍ߰ߢߐ߰ ߓߘߍ߫ ߝߌ߬ߟߊ ߝߊ߰ ߘߴߊ߬ ߓߟߏ߫ ߥߛߎ ߘߐ߫ ߸ ߊ߬ ߞߏߟߊߘߍߢߐ߲߯ ߜߘߍ߫ ߟߎ߬ ߞߊ߬ ߛߊ߲߭ ߦߙߌߞߊ ߞߴߊ߬ ߓߟߏ߫ ߟߊ߫ ߕߊߎߘߋߣߌ߫ ߥߛߎߖߎ߮ ߟߊ߫߸ߦߏ߫߸ߊߡߊߘߎ߫ ߕߙߊߥߟߋ߫ ߣߌ߫ ߞߛߌ߬ߡߊ߲߫ ߕߎ߲߬ߞߙߊ߫ ߣߌ߫ ߗߍ߬ߞߙߐ߫ ߓߊ߰ߦߐ߮ ߣߌ߫ ߛߎ߲ߞߊߙߏ߫ ߛߡߊ߬ߞߍ߫ ߟߎ߬߸ߏ߬ ߓߍ߯ ߞߊ߬ ߛߊ߲߭ ߁߀ ߠߋ߬ ߞߍ߫ ߥߛߎ ߟߵߊ߬ ߓߟߏ߫ ߦߋ߲߬.

ߞߊ߬ߝߏ߬ ߖߊ߬ߛߏ߲߬ ߡߊ߲ߕߙߐ ߡߊ߬ߟߌ߬ߓߊ ߞߊ߲߬ߟߊߖߍ߲ߛߍ߲߫

ߡߎߛߊ߫ ߟߊ߫ ߞߊ߬ߝߏ߬ ߖߊ߲߬ߛߏ߲ ߡߊ߲߬ߕߙߐ߬ߖߎ߮ ߞߍ߫ ߘߊ߫ ߛߊߓߎ߫ ߘߌ߫ ߞߊ߬ ߡߊ߬ߟߌ߬ߓߊ ߟߊ߫ ߥߙߎߞߌ߫ ߛߌߟߊ ߟߎ߬ ߟߊߟߐ߬ ߞߋߕߎ߫߸ߓߊߏ߬،ߖߡߊ߬ߣߊ ߝߊߓߏ߲ ߠߎ߬ ߣߵߊ߬ ߟߊ߫ ߥߊߟߌߘߊ ߓߍ߯ ߟߊߟߐ߬ ߘߊ߫ ߸ߞߊ߬ ߖߡߊ߬ߣߊ ߓߌ߬ߟߊ ߥߊ߲߱ ߠߊ߫߸ߏ߬ ߟߋ߫ ߕߙߐߦߊ ߞߍ߫ ߘߊ߫ ߛߊߓߎ߫ ߘߌ߬߸ߞߵߊ߬ ߟߊ߫ ߞߊ߲ߕߌ߯ߦߊ ߘߊߝߘߌ߫ ߁߉߉߁ ߟߊ߫.